Мечеть «Деггарон»

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поселок Хазара, Навоийская область
Республика Узбекистан
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Мечеть Деггарон — это одна из самых древних мечетей расположенных на территории Узбекистана. Данная мечеть находится в 30 километрах от города Навои около селения Хазара.  Датой окончания строительства мечети принято считай 11 век.

Мечеть была построена около небольшого кишлака,около реки Зарафшан. Жители данного кишлака занимались изготовлением котлов, которые были известны по всему маверанахру. Данный кишлак просуществовал совсем не много времени с вскоре из за засухи жители покинули это место. В 15 веке на некогда заброшенной территории кишлака Деггарон возникла крепость Хазара.

Название мечети связано с именем одного из представителей суфийского течения Хожагон Шайх Малоно Ориф Деггарони. Он родился в 1313 году и был похоронен  в 1376 году в данном кишлаке. Многие считают его наставником основателя суфийской школы Бохауддина Накшбанда.

В настоящее время в данный историко-архитектурный комплекс входят мечеть,  музей и чилляхона (место для молитв). Сама мечеть является уникальным архитектурным строением. При ее строительстве мастера использовали множество разных техник и стилей. Некоторые перекрытия, колонны и часть фундамента сделаны из жженого кирпича. Стены возводились при помощи сырцового кирпича и пахсы (смеси глины и травы). Здание представляет собой четырех угольник с большим куполом и небольшими куполами сфероконической формы,  которые держатся на арках, которые в свою очередь примыкают к стенам и колоннам. Арочно-купальная конструкция состоит из сталактитовых парусов  и кирпичных корнизов -кронштейнов. Арки со своими удивительными софитами декорированы узорами из кирпича и ганча, которые на пересечении образуют трилистник. Над квадратными отсеками установлены малые купола сфероконической формы, которые во  внутренней части здания образуют паруса.

Мечеть Диггарон впервые получила известность в науке в 1934 году. Под мечетью имеются остатки фундамента другой древней постройки. Интересным является, то что мечеть практически идеально ориентированна по четырем сторонам света. Это наталкивает на предположение о  том, что за  много лет до строительства мечети Деггарон на данном месте стоял монихейский или зороастрийский храм.

Ближайшие исторические памятники: Сардоба и караван сарай Рабати — Малик

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Опубликовано: 10.04.2018

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