Кремневые Шахты Учтута

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Кремневые Шахты Учтута находятся в 20 километрах к северу  от города Навои. Кремневые Шахты Учтута являются свидетельством того, что человек начал осваивать территории  Навоийской области  с эпохи палеолита.  На территории кремневых шахт было найдено множество мелких орудий труда эпохи палеолита.

Кремневые Шахты Учтута являются древнейшим памятником жизнедеятельности человека, который расположен в горах Каратау Навбохорского района Навоийской области. Как утверждают археологи уже 200–100 тыс. лет назад  неандерталец (палеантроп) добывал на данной территории кремний. Точно известно что до конца железно века древние люди добывали кремний на южной части гор Каратау в месторождении Учтута.

Данное месторождение получило название Учтут благодаря небольшому селению, которое находится чуть ниже месторождения кремния.

Изначально для добычи кремния люди использовали крупную речную гальку, которая использовалась в качестве отбойника. Кремний, полученный таким способом имел низкое качество, был сухим,  быстро трескался и большая часть кремния ломалась при добыче. Уже с эпохи позднего палеолита первобытные люди стали копать верную часть породы деревянными палками, а потом при помощи мотыг получали влажный кремний. Мотыги были сделаны из деревьев твердых пород и рогов бухарского оленя.

Уже в эпоху неолита древний человек начинает рыть шахты для добычи кремния. Шахты имели несколько отделений и разветвлялись в разные стороны, часто при этом шахты соединялись между собой коридорами.

На территории Учтутского месторождения наедено множество каменных орудий труда, которые схожи с орудиями Кальтаминарской культуры (неолитическая культура охотников и рыболовов которая была распространена в 7–4 тысячелетиях до н. э.)

На сегодня ученными изучено 48 древних шахт месторождения Учтута. Во всех шахтах было обнаружено около 8 тысяч лунок от вынутого кремния (кремниевый желвак). Средний вес желваков которые добывали первобытные люди составлял 35-45 киллограмм.

Таким образом, месторождение  Учтута со своими шахтами было уникальным первобытным промышленным центром аналогов, которому не было во всей Средней Азии.

Ближайшие исторические памятники: Ущелье «Сармыш» и священный источник «Чашма».

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Опубликовано: 18.03.2018

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Категория: Навои

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