Архитектурный комплекс Шахимардан

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селение Газган, Нуратинский район
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Архитектурный комплекс Шахимардан (Шох-и мардон) – это уникальный исторический памятник начала XX века, расположенный в небольшом поселении Газган Нуратинского района Навоийской области. Название Шахимардан в переводе с узбекского означает “Предводитель витязей”.  По поверью, данный архитектурный комплекс был возведен возле мифического захоронения Имама Хазрата  Али, который являлся приемником Великого Пророка Мухаммеда. Нынешний вид Шахимардана был построен  на месте более ранних строений в 1908-1913 годах.

Этот удивительный архитектурный ансамбль включает в себя мечеть-хонаку Шахимардан, дарвозахону (входной комплекс), худжр (небольшая комната для служителей ханаки и паломников), специальные помещения, где готовили ритуальную пищу, уникальной красоты айван (помещение, обнесенное стенами с трех сторон, а с четвёртой стороны — открыто), а также огромные мраморные чаши, предназначенные для воды.

Мечеть-хонака Шахимардан  располагается на северо-западе комплекса и является здесь самым большим зданием. С архитектурной точки зрения эта мечеть по истине великолепна: стены, колонны, перекрытия – здесь все выполнено с большим мастерством.  А если еще и учитывать, что все это выполнено из отесанных блоков мрамора, а глубокая ниша михраба (углубление в стене, предназначенное для молитв имама мечети) облицована чистейшим мрамором черного цвета, украшенная небольшим резным орнаментом в виде различный растений, то можно без сомнений назвать эту мечеть уникальной! Примечателен тот факт, что план и конструкция мечети Шахимардан очень схожи с мечетью Диггарон, расположенная близ села Хазара, чей возраст на 900 лет больше! Хотя обе мечети кардинально отличаются материалом, из которых они были построены.

Стоит отметить, что недалеко от поселения Газган еще несколько веков назад были найдены месторождения мрамора, где на сегодняшний день располагается большой карьер.  По этой причине главным строительным материалом для постройки ансабля Шахимардан стал мрамор, из которого практически все здания здесь были возведены из этого материала.

Внутри самой мечети располагаются 4 высокие колонны, которые размещены  на постаментах прямоугольной формы. Арки, поддерживающие 9 куполов, перекинуты между колоннами и стенами мечети. Кроме того, здесь, над центральным куполом, установлен огромный фонарь с восемью гранями, в каждой из которых есть световые проемы, закрытые решетками.

На территории ансабля с нескольких сторон дарвозахоны располагаются специальные помещения, предназначенные для того, чтобы паломники могли готовить пищу и ночевать. К тому же, специально для них здесь были установлены большие мраморные чаши, которые регулярно заполнялись чистой питьевой водой.

Архитектурный комплекс Шахимардан  имеет целый ряд несомненных достоинства, он уникален собой во всех отношениях. Поэтому его без сомнений можно поставить в ряд с лучшими сельскими памятниками зодчества солнечного Узбекистана начала ХХ века. 

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Опубликовано: 15.03.2018

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